This material specially prepared by Professor Abraham Huberman Z´L, highlighting special events that happened between 1933 and 1945.
Rise to Power of Adolf Hitler
Chancellor Hindenburg appoints Hitler Chancellor (prime minister) in a coalition government composed by Nazi, Conservator, and Catholic groups.
By this time, there were in Germany some 566.000 Jews. The Nazi Party obtained the 37% of votes. The Social democrats and communist represented a similar percentage but they never formed an alliance.
The Reichstag building went up in flames.
The communist are declared guilty. Constitutional Guaranties are suspended. The democratic features of German State begin to disappear.
The first Concentration Camp, Dachau, is inaugurated. The first inmates- defined as” non-socials”- arrive the next day.
Enabling Act passed; giving Hitler dictatorial powers without him taking into accounts neither the Constitution nor the Parliament. These powers would be in force for 5 years and renewed indefinitely
Boycott of Jewish shops and businesses. The Gestapo is established
Germany passed the first anti-Jewish Law Germany limiting the number of Jewish students in Institutions of Higher Education. Jewish civil servants from German Administration were fired
Jewish Ritual Slaughter banned.
Public burning of books (Jewish or non Jewish authors) which content infringe the “German spirit”
A Jew achieves that his protest of discrimination implemented in Silesia, should be accepted in the League of the Nations. Germany accepts the intervention of the League of the Nations and eliminates the discrimination against the Jews in this territory.
• JUNE 30:
Night of the Long Knives
Ernst Roehm was one of the first members of the Nazi Party. He took part in the Beer-Hall Putsch of 1923, but after the trial, he was released. After the victory of the Nazis in the 1930 election he was appointed commander of the SA by Hitler, which at that time had about 170,000 members. Following the Nazi seizure of power Roehm wanted the SA to be incorporated into the German Army. He was bitterly opposed by high-ranking army officers and by Hitler, who was afraid that Roehm would try to seize power as the head of a military government. Hitler ordered the liquidation of the SA. On June 30, 1934 Roehm and other SA leaders were arrested and shot – this purge was later known as “The Night of the Long Knives.”
• AUGUST 2
German President Paul von Hindenburg dies on August 2, 1934, at the age of 86. After Hindenburg’s death, Hitler merged the offices of chancellor and president and became the Reichsfuehrer, thereby making him the sole and unrivalled leader of Germany.
Military conscription in Germany
On March 16, 1935, pursuant to his efforts to reverse provisions of the Versailles accords that were adverse to Germany, Hitler ordered the enactment of a conscription law. The Versailles treaty allowed Germany to have no more than 100,000 men under arms; the new statute promised to multiply this figure many times over. Thus, Germany abrogated another provision of the agreements that had aimed to contain her.
• SEPTEMBER 15
Nuremberg Laws enacted
The term “Nuremberg Laws” refers to anti-Jewish legislation adopted at the Nazi Party Convention, where the Reichstag were guests, in Nuremberg on September 15, 1935. Two swiftly elaborated acts brought about the final legal and social separation of Jews and non-Jews in Germany. The Reich Citizenship Law deprived Jews of electoral rights and made them into second-class citizens. The immediate result was the dismissal of all Jewish civil servants, employees, and workers who still held their jobs. The Citizenship Law provided the legal basis for 13 subsequent administrative orders. The second law endorsed by the Reichstag that day was the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor. This statute forbade Jews to marry nationals of German or kindred blood. In the wake of this law, a complicated classification system was enacted, defining various degrees of Jewishness according to how many grandparents were Jews, i.e., members of the Jewish community: “full Jew,” “considered Jewish,” etc. Each degree had its own specified privileges, rights, and disabilities.
• MARCH 7
Germans enter Rhineland
On March 7, 1936, exploiting disagreements among the Western powers and their preoccupation with the crisis in Ethiopia, Hitler occupied the Rhineland region, which had been demilitarized since the Versailles accords. Hitler had made up his mind to occupy this area in February, regarding the signing of a French-Soviet agreement in early March as a pretext to breach the 1925 Locarno accords, which had ended the border dispute between Germany and France. Despite this act of aggression, the European powers refrained from taking meaningful action against Germany. Bloody, cruel pogrom against Jews from Przitik, Poland.
Anti Jewish riots explode in Eretz Israel (Palestine) and in consequence, the English impose a drastic reduction of the quota of Jewish immigration.
End of War in Ethiopia with the Italian conquest of Addis-Ababa. This demonstrated the impotence of the League of the Nations to detain the aggressive politics of the totalitarian countries.
Olympic Games begin in Berlin
The Olympic Games begin in Berlin. Any anti Jewish propaganda was eliminated. The decision to realize the games in Germany was adopted by the Olympic Committee in 1931. The attempts for boycotting the games due to discrimination policies adopted by the regime, failed.
• MARCH 21
Pope issues statement against racism
On March 21, with the religious freedom of German Catholics at grave risk, the concordat notwithstanding, Pope Pius XI issues the encyclical Mit brennender Sorge (“With Burning Concern”). In this missive, he questioned the errors of Nazi ideology. “Whoever detaches the race, the nation, the state, the form of government…from the earthly frame of reference and makes them into the highest norm of all, higher than religious values, and worships them with idolatry, perverts and distorts the order of things provided and commended by God.” He made no specific mention of the plight of German Jewry.
Neville Chamberlain, is designated Prime Minister of England, he would implement the policy of appeasement to Germany and Italy.
• MARCH 13
Anschluss: Reich Annexes Austria
Hitler sent his army into Austria on March 11, and the Anschluss-the incorporation of Austria into the “Third German Reich”-was proclaimed two days later. The annexation was accompanied by protracted antisemitic eruptions and humiliations of Jews by Austrian citizens under German patronage. Immediately after the annexation, the Gestapo embarked on a week of organized looting of Jewish apartments, in which confiscated objets d’art and valuables were hauled away to Berlin. Before the week was out, Jews were dismissed from their positions in theaters, popular cultural institutions, and public libraries; soon afterwards, they were banned from universities and colleges. Synagogues were desecrated. Jews were arrested and held in detention until they signed away their property.
• MARCH 23
Recognition of Jewish organizations revoked
The public status of Jewish community organizations was revoked. From March 31 on, these organizations were no longer recognized under public law and had to re-register as associations under civil law. This cost them their tax exemption as religious societies and deprived them of the right to collect community taxes.
The first group of political prisoners arrives to Mauthausen Concentration Camp, and obliged to work in the stone quarries of the location.
First anti-Jewish laws enacted in Hungary
Conference of Evian
Representatives of 29 states met in Evian (France) to discuss the international refugee problem. The conference was governmental; neither the refugees themselves nor representative organizations of refugees participated. The various countries’ delegates explained why they could not take in masses of refugees from Germany and Austria. The conference achieved almost no success in opening any country’s gates to the refugees, and by the time it adjourned, there was a public consensus that it had failed to find them a safe haven. The “Evian Conference” fails to provide a refuge for German Jews.
The Kristallnacht Pogrom
On November 7, Herschel Grynszpan, a distraught 17-year-old Polish Jew refugee in Paris, whose parents were among the thousands deported to the Zbaszyn area in Poland, assassinated the Third Secretary in the German Embassy in Paris. Grynszpan hoped to call public attention to the plight of the thousands of helpless deportees. Vom Rath died of his gunshot wounds on the afternoon of November 9. The assassination prompted the Nazis to implement previously made plans to conduct a pogrom across Germany and throughout Austria. Although the pogrom was described officially as a spontaneous popular response to the murder of the third secretary, it was, in fact, an organized action at the initiative of Minister of Propaganda Goebbels, and with Hitler’s consent. That very night, instructions were handed out across the country. The SA encouraged the masses to take part in the pogrom. Mass hysteria erupted. Some 1400 synagogues were partially or totally destroyed. The pogrom was given the name Kristallnacht, because of the innumerable shop windows that were shattered. Shops were burgled, plundered, and looted. Property damage was immense. Jews’ homes were attacked in many locations, many Jews were wounded, and about 100 Jews were murdered. Some 30,000 Jews were arrested, most of them affluent and influential, often on the basis of prepared lists. They were sent to concentration camps, where the SS subjected them to brutal treatment. Hundreds died; others were released after signing statements affirming their intention to leave Germany. Their property was confiscated. In many locations, rioting continued even after it was officially declared over. After the pogrom, the Jewish community was assessed a collective fine of 1 billion reichsmarks in reparations for the murder of vom Rath and was charged for the damage caused on Kristallnacht. The Kristallnacht pogrom was a watershed in preparing the final eradication of the Jews’ status in Germany.
Hitler celebrates the sixth anniversary of his arrival to power and pronounces a speech mentionning that all Europe’s problems will not be solved until there is not an agreement reached on the Jewish question. He warns “if the international Jewry should manage to trigger a new war in Europe (…) the Jews of Europe would be annihilated “. Jews are ordered to turn in all their gold and silver.
Cardinal Eugene Pacelli -former Apostolic Nuncio in Berlin and promoter of the Concordat between the Vatican and the Third Reich- assumes as Pope Pious XII.
• March 15
Hitler proclaimed a German “protectorate” in the Czech region. Practically speaking, this area became part of the Reich. Only in the formal sense did the government of the “autonomous” Czech zone remain intact.
The dismemberment of Czechoslovakia is completed: Slovakia declares its independency the day before, surrendering to the protection of Germany and the rest of the Country is now Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia under German domination
Civil War in Spain ends. Madrid formally surrendered to General Francisco Franco. The collapse of all Loyalist resistance led to a series of tribunals that judged individual leaders of the former government and imposed harsh sentences, including many executions. In all, about 750,000 people were killed in the civil war.
With the German demand of annexing Danzig and the Polish Corridor, England and France promise to come in help of Poland if attacked by Germany. In a speech in Wilhelmshaven, Hitler abrogated Germany’s 1934 non-aggression pact with Poland, which was intended to be effective for ten years, pronouncing it anti-German and inconsistent with the “encirclement policy.” The “encirclement policy” referred to isolating Poland as much as possible and the avoidance of a two – front struggle by reaching an understanding with the Russians. Poland turned to Great Britain and expressed its willingness to join London, France and Moscow in a common front in the case of a German attack.
Mussolin orders Albania´s occupation.
Military Service mandatory in Great Britain. Hitler reports the cancellation of the maritime agreement of 1935 with England.
Second anti-Jewish Law enacted in Hungary determining in agreement to racist laws, who is considered Jewish. In addition, the economic Jewish activity in limited.
The S.S. St. Louis, carrying 930 Jewish refugees from Hamburg, is turned away by Cuba. The U.S. refuses to admit the refugees, who are then forced to return to Germany.
Germany invades Poland. After creating a series of provocations, Germany attacks Poland .The Wehrmacht, which enveloped the country from the west, the north, and the south, outnumbered the Polish forces three to one and had superior equipment. The invasion revealed the German fighting method for the first time: the blitzkrieg, cooperation among naval, air, and ground forces to concurrently attack and surround the enemy extremely rapidly.
France and Great Britain declared formally the war on Germany but took no military measures on Poland´s behalf. World War II begins.
• SEPTEMBER 9
Britain, France, India, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and South Africa declare war on Germany
France and Britain issued an ultimatum to Germany demanding the immediate withdrawal of the German forces from Poland. When Hitler accused Britain of encouraging the Poles to pursue a policy of provocation, Britain, France, India, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and South Africa declared war on Germany.
Heydrich issues the “Schnellbrief” (Urgent Letter). Reinhard Heydrich, head of the Security Police, briefed the commanders of the Einsatzgruppen, and Adolf Eichmann, ordering: the formation of Judenraete (“Jewish Councils”) in Polish towns,to organize the life in the Ghettos, the deportation of Jews from the areas of northwestern Poland that were earmarked for annexation to the Reich, and the concentration of Jews in large towns situated near railroad junctions. He also ordered a census of Polish Jewry and a survey of Jewish property. Heydrich’s edicts made Jewish councils subordinate to his organization and dictated Reich policy toward Polish Jewry. It was asserted in the brief that these measures were considered as temporary steps on the way to the “final goal” – “Endziel”, which was of course undefined in this brief (“Urgent letter”)
“Oneg Shabbat” clandestine archives established. Within a few months of the beginning of the war, Dr. Emanuel Ringelblum and a group of friends began to gather testimonies and descriptions of events of Jews who had come to the capital from peripheral towns. When the Jews were interned in the Warsaw Ghetto, a new phase in the work of the archives began. Ringelblum, aware that the events befalling the Jews under the occupation regime were unprecedented, believed it essential to enable future historians to obtain painstakingly recorded material. The team did not settle for gathering material and taking notes on events; it encouraged writers and laypersons to write about, and analyze, the ghetto realities. Among the small circle of friends who established and managed the collection known as the “Oneg Shabbat” archives, only one member survived.
The German authorities of occupation in Poland order the establishment of Lodz’s ghetto, the second city of Poland after Warsaw, in quantity of Jews.
Hans Frank, German Governor of Poland, orders that the City of Krakow must be “Jüdenfrei” -free of Jews- before November.
Himmler, chief of the SS and the Gestapo, orders to establish a concentration camp in Auschwitz. At early June, the first prisoners begin to come, mainly Poles. Lodz’s ghetto closes hermetically. From this moment on, the Jews there confined have totally prohibited to go out of the ghetto
Jews were resettled in the Lodz Ghetto in an action replete with brutality, looting, abuse, and murder. As they were led to the ghetto, snipers on rooftops opened fire on them to frighten them and expedite their departure. They fled to the ghetto in panic. The Lodz Ghetto was sealed on April 30. Some 164,000 Jews of Lodz were packed into its four square kilometers, of which only two and a half square kilometers were built. The congestion in the area that comprised the ghetto was seven times greater than it had been before the war. The ghetto area was carved into three sectors by two main streets that linked neighborhoods outside the ghetto. Congestion, hunger, cold, and poor sanitation led immediately to mass mortality.
• MAY 10
Germans launched a Blitzkrieg on the Belgian frontier and, on the pretext that Britain and France were planning to invade Germany via Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg, invaded the Low Countries. The Netherlands were attacked mainly by air.
The Netherlands surrenders to the Germans
Nazis bore into the French front in Sedan
Brussels falls in Nazi hands.
Ambers falls to the Nazis.
Himmler proposed to Hitler to banish the Jews, some 4 million, from Western Europe to the African Island of Madagascar. This action would be a good warning guaranteeing the good behavior of his coreligionists opposing to Germany. Previously, it was planned the creation of a Jewish Reserve in the Lubin Region, where 20,000 polish Jews were already transferred. However, the official who made this plan practical was Franz Rademacher, the expert on Jewish affairs in the German Foreign Office. Hitler disclosed the plan to Mussolini in June 1940 as part of its elaboration. The Madagascar Plan was shelved when, in the autumn of 1940, Germany failed to win its battle with Britain. The French also refused to cooperate with the plan. Essentially the plan was not feasible logistically.
• MAY 26 – JUNE 4
The greatest concentration of Allied troops—380,000 soldiers in all—was trapped by German forces at Dunkirk, in an area of 60 square miles. The evacuation of the trapped forces at Dunkirk began in one of the most dramatic retreats in military history, as 861 ships and boats were mobilized and began to remove the trapped forces. Within a week, 224,585 British soldiers and 112,546 French and Belgian fighters were taken to safe shores; 40,000 French soldiers were left behind. 231 vessels were sunk, most by the Luftwaffe. The British left behind 11,000 machine guns, 1,200 cannons, 1,250 anti-aircraft and anti-tank pieces, and 75,000 motor vehicles.
Belgium surrenders to Germany.
• JANUARY 10
All Dutch Jews are obliged to register with the German Authorities. This was the previous step for their identification, forfeiture of assets and later, their deportation.
“Law for the defense of the State” enacted in Romania. Every Jew violating this Law would be punished with twice the fine corresponding to a Non Jewish Romanian.
• FEBRUARY 22
389 Jews from Amsterdam are deported to Buchenwald Concentration Camp.
• FEBRUARY 25
General strike in Amsterdam against the German Occupation Authorities. This is the first occasion when a Non Jewish Population under Nazi domination performs such a solidarity action for the Jews.
• MARCH 1
Himmler issued orders for the construction of a second wing at the Auschwitz camp, a much larger facility three kilometers away from the original camp known as Auschwitz I. The new division would be called Auschwitz II-Birkenau. To make room for the new camp, 2,000 residents of several Polish villages, including Brzezinka, known in German as Birkenau, were evicted from their homes. The villagers’ homes were razed and a vast area of 40 square kilometers was declared off-limits. Intensive construction of barracks and other facilities at Auschwitz II began in October 1941. In its final stage, Auschwitz II was composed of nine sub-units, separated from each other by electrified barbed-wire fences. Auschwitz II (Birkenau) was the most populous of the concentration camps at Auschwitz, and the most brutal and inhuman in its conditions. Most of its prisoners were Jews, followed by Poles, Germans and Gypsies. It was Auschwitz II that became the extermination center containing all gas chambers and crematoria, except for the first which had been built in Auschwitz I.
Order published to establish a Ghetto in Warsaw.
Warsaw Ghetto sealed.
Jews from Radom are incarcerated in two Ghettos. Germans conquer Salonika. Anti Jewish Riots in Ambers (Belgium).
New Anti Jewish attacks in Ambers.
Lublin Ghetto closes.
Athens conquered by Germans. 1,400 Jewish soldiers from Eretz Israel fighting with the English in Greece, are made prisoners of the Germans.
Actions erupt between Iraq Army and English Troops, the English achieve to stop the Iraqi uprising. Immediately, a Pogrom erupts in Baghdad, where some 1000 Jews are murdered, but the English do not intervene in favor of the Jews because they think this is an internal affair.
Rudolf Hess, number two in Hitler’s succession scale, makes a solitary flight to England to –supposedly- propose a peace accord separately between Germany and England.
In Romania, a Law was enacted ordering the mobilization of Jews to Forced Labor.
179 Jews are murdered during a pogrom in Baghdad, where some time before a revolt had taken to power a pro-Nazi Government. The British, with the Eretz Israel soldiers’ help squashed this revolt; but they did not do anything to defend the Jews of Baghdad. Vichy´s Government announces the second rule for the Jews. It is ordered a Jewish census in all the territory under Vichy´s possession.
• JUNE 6
About two weeks before the invasion of the Soviet Union, the Wehrmacht high command (OKW) issued the Kommissarbefehl, the “Commissar Order.” The order was consistent with the Nazis’ ideological perception of the invasion of the USSR as an action meant to liquidate Bolshevism by physically eliminating all bearers of the idea and the Soviet State apparatus. Thus, in contravention of international law, the order stipulated: …If captured during combat or while offering resistance, [these commissars] must on principle be shot immediately…. As for the others, the following rules shall apply: Even if they are only suspected of resistance, sabotage, or instigation thereto… protection granted to prisoners of war… will not apply to them. After having been segregated they are to be liquidated. The Commissar Order, directly implicated the German army in involvement in, and responsibility for, war crimes in the occupied territories. In the summer of 1941, Keitel had all copies of the Commissar Order destroyed, in order to remove evidence of the army’s crimes.
English Troops invade Syria and Lebanon, territories under Vichy´s control. Forces of Palmach (Haganah Task Force) and Moshe Dayan takes part of this action, during this action Moshe Dayan looses an eye.
Crete Island German conquest is completed. 120 Jewish soldiers from Eretz Israel, part of the British Troops, are made prisoner of Germans.
Some 27,000 to 32,000 Jews from Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Bessarabia, and North Bukovina are deported to Siberia by the Soviet Government.
Germany and Turkey agree in a friendship pact.
The Nazis invade the Soviet Union. Italy and Romania declare the War to the Soviet Union. Zagreb Jews made prisoners and deported to Concentration Camps.
The largest military offensive in history. The armed forces of Germany and its allies attacked the Soviet Union along a frontier 1,800 miles long. Stalin disregarded all forewarnings about the impending onslaught, leaving his army formations much unprepared. Germany’s goal was not only to defeat the Red Army, but also to destroy it and the Soviet Union in a enormous and ruthless tide of annihilation. Hitler’s strategy was simple: a blitzkrieg that would wipe out large Red Army formations quickly, by denying them the possibility of retreat or assistance from other units. To accomplish this, the Germans prepared a military offensive on an unprecedented scale: More than 3 million fighting men, 600,000 motor vehicles, 750,000 horses, 3,580 tanks, and 1,830 aircraft took part in the invasion. Hitler. German forces advanced toward the immediate targets: Leningrad, Moscow, and Kiev. The Wehrmacht attained prodigious success in the first few weeks, occupying a strip hundreds of kilometers deep. Masses of Soviet soldiers were killed or taken prisoner, and the German military juggernaut, treating the occupied civilian population with a brutality never before witnessed, seemed unstoppable.
The Einsatzgruppen Units (Task Force groups) begun the systematic and massive murder of the Jews in the conquered territories in the Soviet Union. They send daily communiqués with their activities.
Slovakia declares war to the Soviet Union.
Nazis conquer Brest-Litvosk.
Vilna and Kovno are conquered by the Nazis. The Lithuanians against the Jews perpetrate bloody Pogroms.
15,000 Jews were murdered in the Iasi Pogrom (Romania).
Takeover of Dvinsk (Latvia). Finland takes part in the war against the Soviet Union.
Hungary declares war to the Soviet Union. The Nazis conquer Bialystok and 2,000 Jews were murdered.
The Nazis conquer Minsk, Capital of Bielorrussia.
Thousand of Jews were murdered in Iasi, this was known as “Black Sunday”.
• JANUARY 14
Preparations for the annihilation of Dutch Jewry were made in late 1941 when the German authorities informed the Jewish leadership that “unemployed Jews” would be sent to labor camps. The first deportation in the Netherlands took place on January 14, 1942, as part of a plan to make the country Judenrein. It began in the town of Zandam: Jews with Dutch citizenship were ordered to move to Amsterdam, and alien Jews were transported to the Westerbork camp.
• JANUARY 16
Amidst much terror and intimidation, the first transport from Lodz set out for the gas vans of the Chelmno extermination camp. Earlier, the German authorities forced the chairman of the Judenrat, Chaim Rumkowski, to prepare lists of candidates for deportation and to organize the assembly points at the edge of the ghetto. Rumkowski was not aware of the purpose of the deportation at that time. A committee was appointed and ordered to select victims among those in the “asocial” category-people sentenced for various offenses (who would be banished along with their families), and those on welfare. Excused from the deportation were the seriously ill, sick children, residents of old-age homes, public functionaries, and rabbis. Those who did not report as told were taken to the collection point by the Jewish police. The first deportation also included deportees from Germany: groups of Jews and Gypsies, who had been living in a separate part of the ghetto since October 1941. From the assembly point, the victims were transported to the Chelmno extermination camp under especially heavy German guard. All were murdered in gas vans the day they arrived, or the day after.
Between January and May 1942, approximately 55,000 Jews were deported from Lodz to Chelmno. By the end of these deportations, the Lodz Ghetto had been “productivized,” turned into a camp where the only legal inhabitants were forced laborers who manufactured for the Germans.
• JANUARY 20
On January 20, a meeting took place in a villa in Wannsee, on the outskirts of Berlin, to discuss the measures and inter-ministerial coordination needed to implement the “Final Solution” of the Jewish problem. The meeting was held at the initiative of Reinhard Heydrich, who, as Himmler´s deputy and the head of the RSHA, had been authorized by Hermann Goering to elaborate a program that would solve the Jewish problem totally. Heydrich summoned the directors of the main government agencies that would have to cooperate for the plan to succeed. The goal of the meeting was not to discuss a decision to solve the Jewish problem by murdering all the Jews, but only to consider ways of implementing a decision already made. Heydrich´s plan targeted all 11 million Jews in Europe as by Nazi definition and statistics. He would exploit the Jewish masses for road-building and subject those who survived this grueling labor to “special treatment”-murder.
The deportation of the Jews from Salonika begins to Auschwitz Concentration Camp.
In December 1941, 769 Jews boarded the old cattle boat Struma in the port of Constanta, Romania; their destination was Palestine. The boat reached the port of Constantinople, where it remained at anchor for over two months with its passengers confined on board, as they did not have entry permits for Palestine. The many pleas from various quarters to the British to permit the entry of the Jews based on the existing modest legal immigration quota were to no avail. The Turkish authorities, for their part, were adamant in refusing permission to transfer the would-be immigrants to a transit camp on land until the resumption of their voyage could be arranged, even though the camp was maintained by Jewish organizations at their own expense. On February 24, 1942, the Turkish police towed the boat into the open sea, although it had no water, food, or fuel on board. Within a few hours it was sunk, struck by a torpedo apparently fired in error from a Soviet submarine. Only a single passenger survived.
Sobibor Death Camp´s construction begins. At early May, Jews are annihilated.
5,000 Jews from Minsk, Capital of Byelorussia are murdered.
“Intellectuals Operation”: 50 Jewish intellectuals from Krakow were murdered,.
MARCH 19 – END OF MARCH
15,000 Jews from Lvov were sent to be murdered in Belzec.
The Ghetto of Kolomeia is established; there are 18,000 Jews imprisoned,
The first “delivery” of Jews organized by Eichmann arrives to Auschwitz.
MARCH 26– OCTOBER 20
More than 57,000 Jews are deported from Slovakia. .
First deportation of French Jews to Auschwitz.
APRIL 3 – 4
5,000 Jews from Kolomeia sent to Belzec.
250 are murdered still in the Ghetto.
“Black Night”: Nazis go across the streets of Warsaw with prepared lists in hand and murder some 52 Jews.
Jews from Lublin are sent to Belzec.
Dutch Jews are obliged to wear the Yellow Star. In just one day 20,000 Jews from Pinsk are obliged to enter the Ghetto.
The Dvinsk Ghetto is almost totally liquidated. .
1,500 Jews from Sosnoviec deported to Auschwitz.
Belgian Jews are obliged to wear the Yellow Star since June 5.
MAY 28 TO JUNE 8
6,000 Jews from Krakow are sent to Belzec Death Camp and some 3,000 are murdered still in town.
Heydrich, protective of Bohemia and Moravia dies, in consequence of injuries produced by an attack. United States declare the War to Romania.
All the Jews in France must wear the yellow star.
• JUNE 10
The Town of Lidice, destroyed by the Nazis as a revenge by the murder of Heydrich.
• JUNE 11
Eichmann orders the beginning of the deportation of Jews from France, Belgium, and The Netherlands to the Death Camps in Poland. 3,500 Jews from Tarnow are deported to Belzec.
JUNE 15 TO 18
10,000 Jews from Tarnow are deported to Belzec Death Camp.
1,000 Jews from Pzsemyzse deported to the Ianowska Camp, near of Lvov.
JUNE 20 – OCTOBER 20
13,766 Jews from Vienna deported to Therezin.
First deportation of Jews from Drancy (France) to Auschwitz.
Jews from Brussels are deported to Forced Labor Camps in North France.
The German Security Police, Sipo, gets the management of Westerborg Concentration Camp (Netherland)
The Nazis forbid Dutch Jews to withdraw their money from private bank accounts. All Bank accounts are assembled in one single account that is confiscated.
1,500 Jews from Radom (Poland) deported to Treblinka Death Camp.
JANUARY 17 TO 24
Casablanca Conference. The President of the United States, Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, commit to continue the war against Germany until its total surrender..
The rest of the Sixth German Army, surrender to the Soviets in the historical Stalingrad Battle.
FEBRUARY 5 TO 12,
10,000 Jews from Bialystok are deported to Treblinka.
20,000 Jews are murdered in the Ghetto.
Actions of armed resistance.
The first groups of gypsies arrive to Auschwitz. They are placed in a special place in this Death Camp.
MARCH 4 – 9
Arrest and deportation to Treblinka of 4,000 Jews of Tracia (region of Greece occupied by Bulgaria)
Deportation to Treblinka of 7,341 Jews from Macedonia.
Deportation of 2,000 Jews from Krakow to Plaszow Forced Labor Camp.
MARCH 20 TO AUGUST 18
In 20 deportations of Jews from Salonika to Auschwitz, some 43.850 were deported.
APRIL 8 – 9
1,000 Jews are murdered in Tarnopol (Poland)
APRIL 19 to 30
Conference of Bermuda over the refugees issue. American and British servants hindered efforts to save the Jews restraining their return to their own countries. The excuse was the fear of Nazi Agents infiltration among the refugees.
APRIL 19 TO MAY 16:
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising; total destruction of the Ghetto. The Germans had planned to liquidate the Warsaw ghetto in three days, but the ghetto fighters held out for more than a month. Even after the end of the uprising on May 16, individual Jews hiding out in the ruins of the ghetto continued to attack the patrols of the Germans and their auxiliaries. The Warsaw ghetto uprising was the largest, symbolically most important Jewish uprising, and the first urban uprising, in German-occupied Europe. The resistance in Warsaw inspired other uprisings in ghettos (e.g., Bialystok and Minsk) and killing centers (Treblinka and Sobibor).
Mordechai Anielewicz falls together with other fighters, when the Nazis break into the bunker of the Combatant Jewish Organization in Street Mila 18 in Warsaw.
Shmuel Zigelbboim, representative of the Bund in the London National Polish Council, commit suicide when he knew about the liquidation of the Jewish Combat Organization ( Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa; ZOB), and as a way of protest because of the worlds silence in face of the annihilations of European Jews.
Hungary is occupied by the Nazis when this Country tries to get off the War.
The Jews are obliged to use the Yellow Star is obliged to use in Hungary
The arrangements to deport Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz begin.
The first transport of Hungarian Jews, arrive to Auschwitz.
MAY 15 – JULY 9
In eight weeks, 437,000 Hungarian Jews are deported to Auschwitz.
The Red Army freed polish town of Kielce. Only 25 of thousands of Jews living there before WWII, survived.
The Red Army freed Warsaw. The City is destroyed.
The evacuation of Auschwitz Death Camp begin, 58.000 prisoners, most of them Jews, are obliged to do “The Death March” heading other Camps. 15,000 die in this March.
The Red Army liberates Lodz and Krakow.
136 Jews with Latin-American Passports, liberated from Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp head to Switzerland, where are received. .
JANUARY 25 – APRIL 25
50,000 Jews, prisoner in Stutthof Concentration Camp, are obliged to participate in the “Death Marches”. Some 26,000 die.
The Red Army freed Auschwitz Death Camp. There was almost no Jew alive.
1,200 Jews from Bohemia and Moravia arrive to Switzerland thank to the International Red Cross help.
Argentina declares War to Japan and its Ally, Germany. It is the last Country to do this War Declaration.
The Nazis empty a great deal of prisoners from Buchenwald Concentration Camp.
Americans liberate Buchenwald Concentration Camp.
Roosevelt, President of the United States of America dies.
British liberate Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp.
Russian attack to Berlin begins.
Italian Partisans capture and execute by firearm Benito Mussolini.
Hitler commits suicide in his Berlin bunker.
German Army surrenders in Italy.
Soviet Army occupies Berlin.
The International Red Cross, receives the Concentration Camp of Theresienstadt with 17,247 prisoners.
The SS abandon Mauthausen Concentration Camp.
Surrender of German Army to Allied Forces.
Nazi Germany surrenders unconditionally.